Master's degree: Completion of this degree usually requires 1 or 2 years of full-time academic study beyond a bachelor's degree. Examples of occupations in this category include statisticians, physician assistants, and educational, guidance, school, and vocational counselors.Bachelor's degree: Completion of this degree generally requires at least 4 years, but not more than 5 years, of full-time academic study beyond high school. Examples of occupations in this category include budget analysts, dietitians and nutritionists, and civil engineers.
Associate's degree: Completion of this degree usually requires at least 2 years but not more than 4 years of full-time academic study beyond high school. Examples of occupations in this category include mechanical drafters, respiratory therapists, and dental hygienists.Postsecondary non-degree award: These programs lead to a certificate or other award, but not a degree. The certificate is awarded by the educational institution and is the result of completing formal postsecondary schooling. Certification, issued by a professional organization or certifying body, is not included here. Some postsecondary non-degree award programs last only a few weeks, while others may last 1 to 2 years. Examples of occupations in this category include nursing assistants, emergency medical technicians (EMT's) and paramedics, and hairstylists.
Some college, no degree: This category signifies the achievement of a high school diploma or equivalent plus the completion of one or more postsecondary courses that did not result in a degree or award. An example of an occupation in this category is actors.High school diploma or equivalent: This category indicates the completion of high school or an equivalent program resulting in the award of a high school diploma or an equivalent, such as the General Education Development (GED) credential. Examples of occupations in this category include social and human service assistants, carpenters, and pharmacy technicians.
No formal educational credential: This category signifies that a formal credential issued by an educational institution, such as a high school diploma or postsecondary certificate, is not typically needed for entry into the occupation. Examples of occupations in this category include janitors and cleaners, cashiers, and agricultural equipment operators.Work experience in a related occupation: For some occupations, work experience in a related occupation may be a typical method of entry. The majority of occupations in this category are first-line supervisors of service, sales, and production occupations or managers of all occupations. Although work experience in a related occupation is beneficial for all occupations, this metric captures work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for other, more formal types of training or education. Occupations are assigned one of the following three categories that deal with length of time spent gaining related work experience:
5 years or more: This is assigned to occupations if 5 or more years of work experience in a related occupation is typically needed for entry. Examples include financial managers and computer and information systems managers.Less than 5 years: To enter occupations in this category, workers typically need less than 5 years of work experience in a related occupation. Examples include food service managers and database administrators.
None: No work experience in a related occupation is typically needed. Examples are audiologists and actuaries.Typical on-the-job training needed to attain competency in the occupation: This category encompasses any additional training or preparation that is typically needed, once employed in an occupation, to attain competency in the skills needed in that occupation. Training is occupation-specific rather than job-specific; skills learned can be transferred to another job in the same occupation. Occupations are assigned one of the following six training categories:
Internship/residency: An internship or residency is training that involves preparation in a field such as teaching or medicine, generally under supervision in a professional setting, such as a classroom or hospital. This type of training may occur before one is employed. Completion of an internship or residency program is commonly required for state licensure or certification in fields including medicine, counseling, architecture, and teaching. Examples of occupations in the internship or residency category include physicians and surgeons and marriage and family therapists. This category does not include internships that are suggested for advancement in one's career, such as a marketing internship.Apprenticeship: An apprenticeship is a formal relationship between a worker and sponsor that consists of a combination of on-the-job training and related occupation-specific technical instruction in which the worker learns the practical and theoretical aspects of an occupation. Apprenticeship programs are sponsored by individual employers, joint employer-and-labor groups, and employer associations. The typical apprenticeship program provides at least 144 hours of occupation-specific technical instruction and 2,000 hours of on-the-job training per year, over a 3- to 5-year period. Examples of occupations in the apprenticeship category include electricians and structural iron and steel workers.
Long-term on-the-job training: More than 12 months of on-the-job training or, alternatively, combined work experience and formal classroom instruction, is needed for workers to develop the skills to attain competency. Training is occupation-specific rather than job-specific; therefore, skills learned can be transferred to another job in the same occupation. This on-the-job training category also includes employer-sponsored training programs. Such programs include those offered by fire academies and schools for air traffic controllers. In other occupations—nuclear power reactor operators, for example—trainees take formal courses, often provided at the jobsite, to prepare for the required licensing exams. Also included in the long-term on-the-job training category are occupations in which workers typically need to possess a natural ability or talent—including musicians and singers, athletes, dancers, photographers, and actors—and that ability or talent must be cultivated over several years, sometimes in a non-work setting. This category excludes apprenticeships. Examples of occupations in the long-term on-the-job training category include opticians, dancers, and power plant operators.Moderate-term on-the-job training: More than 1 month and up to 12 months of combined on-the-job experience and informal training is needed for workers to develop the skills needed to attain competency. Training is occupation-specific rather than job-specific; therefore, skills learned can be transferred to another job in the same occupation. This on-the-job training category also includes employer-sponsored training programs. Examples of occupations in the moderate-term on-the-job training category include transit and inter-city bus drivers and advertising sales agents.
Short-term on-the-job training: The skills needed for a worker to attain competency in an occupation can be acquired during 1 month or less of on-the-job experience and informal training. Training is occupation-specific rather than job-specific; therefore, skills learned can be transferred to another job in the same occupation. This on-the-job training category also includes employer-sponsored training programs. Examples of occupations in the short-term on-the-job training category include retail salespersons and maids and housekeeping cleaners.
The Administrative and Support Services occupational cluster is comprised of a diverse group of occupations. In addition to occupations directly related to office administration, clerical support, and finance and insurance. Also included in this broad group are occupations that provide a wide variety of support-related activities and services, including firefighting and investigation and security related occupations.
AGRICULTURE, FOOD, and HOSPITALITY
The Construction and Clean Energy occupational cluster is primarily comprised of occupations involved in the construction and design of buildings. Also included in this group are specialty trade contractors (e.g. Electricians, Painters, Carpet Installers, etc.), Cabinetmakers, Construction and Building Inspectors, Cost Estimators, and Welders. Many of the occupations in this occupational cluster are also directly related to clean energy technology.
HEALTH SERVICES and LIFE SCIENCES
The Information and Communications Technology occupational cluster is comprised of occupations involved in the design, production, and administration of communications and computer hardware and software systems and networks. As with Administrative and Support Services related occupations, many of the occupations in this category are employed, to some degree, across most industries.
INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, and REPAIR
The Transportation, Production, and Manufacturing occupational cluster is comprised of a diverse group of occupations directly related to the actual manufacturing and/or production of goods, as well as the manufacturing of industrial machinery, recycling, and green energy manufacturing efforts. Also included in this category are occupations related to the storage, distribution, and transportation of manufactured goods. Many of the occupations in this occupational cluster are also directly related to clean energy technology.